CPU full form! Central Processing Unit

CPU full form

Full form of CPU Central Processing Unit

CPU full form is Central Processing Unit. A CPU is a computer’s brain. It carries out instructions and computer programs and performs all the basic arithmetic and logical operations. CPU is installed in the motherboard on a specific area known as the CPU socket.

The processor or central processing unit is the main part of a computer, which processes data given by the user and produces an output.

The central processing unit of modern computers works at lightning speed and performs millions of calculations within seconds to execute any program.

Components of CPUs

There are three primary components of a CPU: the arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, and the registers.

The arithmetic logic unit is responsible for performing all the logical and arithmetical operations.

The control unit is the most important part of the CPU and directs the entire computer system to carry out a particular task.

Lastly, registers are a special type of memory device that stores data that needs to be processed and data that has already been processed by the processor.

Each of the three components works with one another to carry out a specific task. The control unit receives data from the user, processes it using the arithmetic logic unit, and directs the output to be displayed on an electronic display or printed on paper.

Types of CPUs

The three major types of CPUs are

  • transistor CPUs
  • small-scale integration CPUs
  • large-scale integration CPUs.

Transistor CPUs are the simplest type of CPU and are made up of just a few transistors.

Small-scale integration CPUs are a little more complex and contain a few hundred transistors.

Large-scale integration CPUs are the most complex type of CPU and contain millions of transistors.

The history of the CPU

The history of the CPU is a long and eventful one. Silicon, the key component of processors, was discovered by Baron Jons Jackob in 1823. However, it was not until the early 1960’s that the term CPU was first used to define a device for software execution.

This was due to the advent of the stored-program computer. Some of the important events related to the history of CPUs are as follows:

-In 1903, Nikola Tesla patented the electrical logic circuits (gates or switches).

-In 1947, the first transistor was invented by John Barden, Walter Brattain and William Shockley at the Bell Laboratories.

-In 1958, Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby developed the first integrated circuit.

-On 15 November 1971, Intel introduced the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004.

-In March 1991, AMD introduced the AM386 microprocessor family.

-On 22 March 1993, Intel released the Pentium processor, a 60 MHz processor with 3.1 million transistors.

-On 4 January 2000, Intel released the Celeron 553 MHz bus processor.

-On 22 April 2006, Intel released the Core 2 Duo processor E6320.

-In November 2008, Intel released the first Core i7 desktop processors.

-In January 2010, Intel released the first Core i5 Mobile processors (i5-430M and i5-520E).

The present-day CPUs are based on the Von Neumann architecture. A CPU comprises a control unit, arithmetic logic unit, and an ALU which is under the control of a set of instructions called “machine code”. All operations in the CPU occur through these three units.

The control unit fetches machine code from the main memory and is responsible for executing all the arithmetic and logical operations.

The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs mathematical calculations on data that is input or output by the control unit.

The memory unit plays a very important role in the performance of the computer system as it stores machine code, data, and programs.

Internal Structure of the CPU

1. The CPU is made up of IC or Integrated Circuit Chips

2. These chips are made up of millions of transistors

3. Transistors are the basic building blocks of a processor and function as micro switches, which can be programmed for two states, either on or off

4. This is the main reason why computers understand only binary language-binary code (0 and 1), representing off and on

5. The transistors are made of semiconductor material called silicon

6. Silicon is the basic building block of making a transistor

7. A transistor is usually made up of 3 layers; an insulating layer, a charge carrier (usually N-type), and a source/drain (P-type) layer

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